Self-driving cars technology

Self-driving cars

Self-driving cars technology is the future of transport .it is also known as autonomous vehicles or driverless cars. The main principle behind self-driving cars is, a car able to sense the environment and move safely without zero human inputs. 

In past years most companies and scientists research self-driving cars. Finally, it is possible now. But most self-driving vehicles in the primary stage. Alphabet, Toyota, Honda, Tesla, Nissan, Uber are the leading companies that they are making self-driving cars.

A self-driving vehicle is a combination of sensors, artificial intelligence systems to control, navigate, and drive the vehicle.

Nearly 1920 -the experiment has been conducted on automated driving systems .in 1990, trials began, then in 1997, the first semi-automated car developed by japan (mechanical engineering lab ). It has two cameras on the vehicle and an analog computer.

Let robots drive

(more about history )

How do self-driving vehicles works 

Autonomous -it defines as self -governing .this act alone or independent without human input

Automated:- It means to control or operate by a machine.

There are six levels of driving automation.

  • Level 0:- No automation .everything control by manually
  • Level 1:- This is a combination of driver and automated system.
  • Level 2:- Automated system controlled by vehicle (control speed of car steering and other function done by a human)
  • Level 3:- The driver away from the driving task (Detect environment and perform the most task itself )
  • Level 4:- High automation stage (The driver attention only for safety purposes )
  • Level5:- Fully automation stage (the vehicle control all the things by itself and zero human inputs.)

Self-driving vehicles are able to make their own decision and choices. If we give the destination, these types of cars go autonomous with their own choices. (select the best way, consider the safety, consider the traffic sources, environmental objects, and other people outside ).

Self-driving vehicles s have a variety of sensors to sense the surround such as LIDAR, Sonar, GPS, Rader, and cameras. The car can analyze sensory information through advanced control systems.

  • The camera:- the camera is one of the main components in self-driving vehicles .the camera can be taken photos or videos and processing them. Therefore the car can see the world when it drive or park .these camera systems are specialized that it can give a panoramic view of surround. so the vehicle can see the wide view of the surround 
  • LIDAR:- These standards for light detection and Ragging .this sensor build laser pulse around the car, as a result of The car able to see other environmental objects (pedestrians, people, buildings). These sensors are expensive.
  • The Radar:- this is ancient technology. But it is valid for today. Most ships use a radar system to identify objects. This sensor transmits the radio wave pulse. If that pulse hits an object and it bounces back to the sensor. Using that information (velocity and other information) can measure the distance of the object.
  • GPS:-  like the other cars, autonomous cars have navigation base on the global position system(GPS). The car can identify autonomously which route is the best according to the GPS. The satellite is used for a GPS navigation system.
  • Sonar Sensor:- it is standard for Sound navigation and Raging .this sensor support driving and parking the car in a specific place. It can cause obstacle detection. It is a type of ultrasonic sensor.
  • These are some primary sensors of self-driving vehicles. All the sensory information goes to the main system, and that system able to get the decision and how the car is working.

Challenges With self-driving cars 

  • Lidar and radar sensors are expensive. Because of that, public people cannot afford these cars.
  • According to the weather conditions, these vehicles in heavy perception (Snow, cameras, and sensors can be covered by water, oil, and dust, etc.)
  • Impact of government laws and conditions, most countries do not prepare for self-driving vehicles, .and there are not create specific rules for autonomous cars.
  • If there is an accident happen because of autonomous cars, which will get the responsibility? The manufacturing company or passenger in the car
  • Human drivers have emotional thinking, so they are very friendly, speak, and share ideas with the passenger. But autonomous vehicles have artificial intelligence. Because of that, is it possible? Replace artificial intelligence on behalf of the emotional intelligence of humans.

Advantages of self-driving vehicles 

  • Improve the efficacy
  • Reduce road traffic congestion
  • Reduce the harmful gases released to the environment like carbon dioxide
  • Increase safety and reduce traffic accidents.
  • Passengers can get a smooth and compatible experience.
  • Sometimes human drivers are breaking the road rules. But autonomous cars follow all legal road signals and rules.
  • Speed limits are safe.


  • The cost is very high (unaffordable price for most people)
  • Humans drivers are unemployed.
  • These cars can be hacked by 
  • Hackers.
  • Difficulty operating in weather conditions. ( heavy rain).
  • The police can not recognize autonomous vehicles.
  • Self-driving vehicles are collecting passenger data. It may be privacy concerns.
  • Maintain is somewhat difficult and costly.

Future of Self-driving vehicles.

These types of autonomous cars involve in future transportation. Engineers and scientists are making Level five full autonomous vehicles for the future. Alphabet, Waymo, Toyota, Nissan, Honda these companies are developing self-driving vehicles by 2020.

Every vehicle will autonomous in the future, and it will bring some changes and new opportunities for the world. Still, driverless technology is developing. Hopefully, we can see the driverless car in the future.

Real-World example for Self-driving cars

  • Alphabet:- it is the mother company of Google. It is the most priority company in autonomous cars. Waymo LLC is the subsidiary company that operates google self-driving vehicles. “Waymo one ” was a commercial self-driving car.
  • Tesla:- Tesla cars have advanced drive assistants called Autopilot. Autopilot system able to lane centering, adaptive cruise control, and self-parking capabilities. It has advanced sensor coverage processing power, navigation, auto street, and full self-driving capabilities.
  • Toyota:- Toyota is the vehicle company that is trying to release advance self-driving cars for the market. Toyota set to release level two autonomous vehicles capable of driving themselves on the highway. It will release in the next five decades.
  • Nissan:- this company is also researching self-driving vehicles. Nissan autonomous driving technology in the all-new “Nissan Leaf” electric vehicles is the leading company of electric vehicles. Currently, Nissan building autonomous cars on a single line highway. In the future, gradually, the company will improve multiline highway roads, city driving, and ultimately fully self-driving vehicles for all the situations.


This is the future of vehicles. In 1816 the first car was invented. But now, vehicles are changing gradually and become self-driving cars. We can not change the future of cars. But we have to adopt it. Up to now, there are challenges, advantages, and disadvantages of self-driving vehicles. However, in the future, self-driving cars are very common for all of us.

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