types of industrial  robot arms

 Types of industrial robot arms

Industrial robots are one of the main branches of the robotics field. Most of the factories use different types of industrial robotics for their process. There are different types of industrial robots on the market that you can choose according to the tasks. (Related what is robotics and different types of robots)

Most industrial robots are programmable. Industrial robots powered by electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic

motors or actuators. Electric motors are most famous for the principal

axes of floor-standing industrial robots today. Because it is cleaner, quite an operation without any oil or air leakage.

These are some economic factors that you have to consider before you buy any industrial robots.

  • Price of the robot
  • Power usage installation cost
  • Maintain cost
  • Return on investment
  • Quality of improvement
  • Productivity improvement
  • Lifetime and depreciation

This classification is base on the coordinate system, arm configuration, or geometric work envelope.

Cartesian robots:- 

These robots are referred to as rectilinear robots.

This industrial robot moves to X, Y, and Z directions according to the cartesian coordinate system. So, referred to as a Cartesian robot. All the moments are linear, cartesian robots need more floor space, and it works in a wide range of areas.

It is the most commonly use robot type in an industrial robot.

This robot is famous in the industry because it is highly customizable. Customers can change the length, speed, and coordinate according to the application.

The major drawback is these robots are sophisticated, and they required assembled each part by builders.

These robots are commonly used in material handling, pick and place operation, assembly systems.

Cylindrical robots:-

These robots are a combination of rotational motion. This robot has a cylindrical workspace, and the robot arm has one revolute joint and two prismatic joints.

This robot arm moves vertically by sliding. And the base is consisting of a rotary actuator.

The movement is referred to as.

  • Base rotation
  • Elevation
  • Reach

This robot can only work around it because the workspace is cylindrical.

These types of industrial robots are use material place operations. Installation and maintenance are not many complexes; they require less space and carry large payloads. This robot is move LED panels, assembly applications, etc.

Spherical robots:- 

 These types of robots are also called polar robots. Usually, spherical robots are ball-shaped. But when it comes to the industry, it has a different configuration. This robot consists of two revolute joints and one prismatic joint.

The movement referred to as based revelation, elevation angle, and reach Z

The workspace is spherical in terms of the spherical coordinates system. Unimate is the first industrial spherical robot production in the 1960 s.

Spherical robots increase the production of Manuel. These robots are used in spot welding, assembly operation, machine tool handling, arc welding, and painting.

Articulated robots:-

It is one of the most common types of industrial robots. It is all in one robot. It can perform more complicated than a rectangle, a cylindrical, or a sphere. These robots act like a human arm, and it picks payload and move.

The robot arm was connected to the base by revolute joints. It usually has six degrees of freedom. Usually, this robot has four to six axes. This robot arm attaches to the robot wrist and end effector. To define the position of the arm requires mathematical transformation.

This robot has more complex kinematics and relatively higher component mass. These robots are commonly used in most of the automobile industry, such as BMW, BENZ.

The articulated robots can perform assembly, pick and place operations, move payloads, Spray-painting, welding, packaging, dispensing and inspection, etc.

Many robotics companies produce articulate robots such as KUKAFanucABB, etc.

SCARA robots:-

SCARA is referred to as a selective compliance assembly robot arm .it also consists of three-axis (X, Y, and Z); it has rotary motion and linear motion. These robots have excellent repeatability and high speed. It is easy to install in the workspace rather than a Cartesian robot. When it takes a single, it needs a small space to work. Bio med, packaging, machine loading assembly are some applications of SCARA robots.

Delta robots:- these robots are also referred to as spider robots. It is a parallel link robot. It consists of parallel link joints that connect with one base. The delta robot’s design reduces the weight within the arm, so it has higher acceleration and speeds. It also moves in the cartesian (X, Y, and Z ) plane. The end effector is controlled easily in speed operation because the base is standard for arms. Delta robots are used in the food industry, electronics, automobile industries, etc.

Advantages of industrial robots

  • Industrial robots can be reprogrammable so that they can perform a wide range of tasks
  • Industrial robots can be integrated with other machines and human operators.
  • Industrial robots can perform dangerous tasks such as high temperature and humidity, molten metals, welding arcs, flames, high voltage sources, and move heavy loads from one place to another place.
  • Industrial robots are efficient and effective.
  • Industrial robots are faster, more substantial as well as practice in specific tasks without zero errors.

Disadvantages of industrial robots

  • Most industrial robots are somewhat expensive.
  • Some employees lost their jobs because of industrial robots.
  • It needs ample space to operate and must be away from the people and employees (for safety purposes)
  • It needs well-trained employees to maintain the robot arms (it also consider new job opportunities because of automation and robotics)

Some Real-world application of industrial robotics

  • In the automobile industry, industrial robots are used for Spot welding and installing seats and windshields of the vehicles
  • Spray-painting robots
  • Pick and place robots
  • Chemical maturing robots
  • Parts handlingt robots


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